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= Working with Gerrit: An example
To understand how Gerrit works, let's follow a change through its entire
life cycle. This example uses a Gerrit server configured as follows:
* *Hostname*: gerrithost
* *HTTP interface port*: 80
* *SSH interface port*: 29418
In this walkthrough, we'll follow two developers, Max and Hannah, as they make
and review a change to a +RecipeBook+ project. We'll follow the change through
these stages:
. Making the change.
. Creating the review.
. Reviewing the change.
. Reworking the change.
. Verifying the change.
. Submitting the change.
NOTE: The project and commands used in this section are for demonstration
purposes only.
== Making the Change
Our first developer, Max, has decided to make a change to the +RecipeBook+
project he works on. His first step is to get the source code that he wants to
modify. To get this code, he runs the following `git clone` command:
clone ssh://gerrithost:29418/RecipeBook.git RecipeBook
After he clones the repository, he runs a couple of commands to add a
link:user-changeid.html[Change-Id] to his commits. This ID allows Gerrit to link
together different versions of the same change being reviewed.
scp -p -P 29418 gerrithost:hooks/commit-msg RecipeBook/.git/hooks/
chmod u+x .git/hooks/commit-msg
NOTE: To learn more about adding a change-id and the commit message hook, see
the link:cmd-hook-commit-msg.html[commit-msg Hook] topic.
== Creating the Review
Max's next step is to push his change to Gerrit so other contributors can review
it. He does this using the `git push origin HEAD:refs/for/master` command, as
$ <work>
$ git commit
[master 3cc9e62] Change to a proper, yeast based pizza dough.
1 file changed, 10 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
$ git push origin HEAD:refs/for/master
Counting objects: 3, done.
Delta compression using up to 8 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 532 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Processing changes: new: 1, done
remote: New Changes:
remote: http://gerrithost/#/c/RecipeBook/+/702 Change to a proper, yeast based pizza dough.
To ssh://gerrithost:29418/RecipeBook
* [new branch] HEAD -> refs/for/master
Notice the reference to a `refs/for/master` branch. Gerrit uses this branch to
create reviews for the master branch. If Max opted to push to a different
branch, he would have modified his command to
`git push origin HEAD:refs/for/<branch_name>`. Gerrit accepts pushes to
`refs/for/<branch_name>` for every branch that it tracks.
The output of this command also contains a link to a web page Max can use to
review this commit. Clicking on that link takes him to a screen similar to
the following.
.Gerrit Code Review Screen
image::images/intro-quick-new-review.png[Gerrit Review Screen]
This is the Gerrit code review screen, where other contributors can review
his change. Max can also perform tasks such as:
* Looking at the link:user-review-ui.html#diff-preferences[diff] of his change
* Writing link:user-review-ui.html#inline-comments[inline] or
link:user-review-ui.html#reply[summary] comments to ask reviewers for advice
on particular aspects of the change
* link:intro-user.html#adding-reviewers[Adding a list of people] that should
review the change
In this case, Max opts to manually add the senior developer on his team, Hannah,
to review his change.
== Reviewing the Change
Let's now switch to Hannah, the senior developer who will review Max's change.
As mentioned previously, Max chose to manually add Hannah as a reviewer. Gerrit
offers other ways for reviewers to find changes, including:
* Using the link:user-search.html[search] feature that to find changes
* Selecting *Open* from the *Changes* menu
* Setting up link:user-notify.html[email notifications] to stay informed of
changes even if you are not added as a reviewer
Because Max added Hannah as a reviewer, she receives an email telling her about
his change. She opens up the Gerrit code review screen and selects Max's change.
Notice the *Label status* section above:
Label Status Needs label:
* Code-Review
* Verified
These two lines indicate what checks must be completed before the change is
accepted. The default Gerrit workflow requires two checks:
* *Code-Review*. This check requires that someone look at the code and ensures
that it meets project guidelines, styles, and other criteria.
* *Verified*. This check means that the code actually compiles, passes any unit
tests, and performs as expected.
In general, the *Code-Review* check requires an individual to look at the code,
while the *Verified* check is done by an automated build server, through a
mechanism such as the
link:[Gerrit Trigger
Jenkins Plugin].
IMPORTANT: The Code-Review and Verified checks require different permissions
in Gerrit. This requirement allows teams to separate these tasks. For example,
an automated process can have the rights to verify a change, but not perform a
code review.
With the code review screen open, Hannah can begin to review Max's change. She
can choose one of two ways to review the change: unified or side-by-side.
Both views allow her to perform tasks such as add
link:user-review-ui.html#inline-comments[inline] or
link:user-review-ui.html#reply[summary] comments.
Hannah opts to view the change using Gerrit's side-by-side view:
.Side By Side Patch View
image::images/intro-quick-review-line-comment.png[Adding a Comment]
Hannah reviews the change and is ready to provide her feedback. She clicks the
*REPLY* button on the change screen. This allows her to vote on the change.
.Reviewing the Change
image::images/intro-quick-reviewing-the-change.png[Reviewing the Change]
For Hannah and Max's team, a code review vote is a numerical score between -2
and 2. The possible options are:
* `+2 Looks good to me, approved`
* `+1 Looks good to me, but someone else must approve`
* `0 No score`
* `-1 I would prefer that you didn't submit this`
* `-2 Do not submit`
In addition, a change must have at least one `+2` vote and no `-2` votes before
it can be submitted. These numerical values do not accumulate. Two
`+1` votes do not equate to a `+2`.
NOTE: These settings are enabled by default. To learn about how to customize
them for your own workflow, see the
link:config-project-config.html[Project Configuration File Format] topic.
Hannah notices a possible issue with Max's change, so she selects a `-1` vote.
She uses the *Cover Message* text box to provide Max with some additional
feedback. When she is satisfied with her review, Hannah clicks the
*SEND* button. At this point, her vote and cover message become
visible to to all users.
== Reworking the Change
Later in the day, Max decides to check on his change and notices Hannah's
feedback. He opens up the source file and incorporates her feedback. Because
Max's change includes a change-id, all he has to do is follow the typical git
workflow for updating a commit:
* Check out the commit
* Amend the commit
* Push the commit to Gerrit
$ <checkout first commit>
$ <rework>
$ git commit --amend
[master 30a6f44] Change to a proper, yeast based pizza dough.
Date: Fri Jun 8 16:28:23 2018 +0200
1 file changed, 10 insertions(+), 5 deletions(-)
$ git push origin HEAD:refs/for/master
Counting objects: 3, done.
Delta compression using up to 8 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 528 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Processing changes: updated: 1, done
remote: Updated Changes:
remote: http://gerrithost/#/c/RecipeBook/+/702 Change to a proper, yeast based pizza dough.
To ssh://gerrithost:29418/RecipeBook
* [new branch] HEAD -> refs/for/master
Notice that the output of this command is slightly different from Max's first
commit. This time, the output verifies that the change was updated.
Having uploaded the reworked commit, Max can go back to the Gerrit web
interface, look at his change and diff the first patch set with his rework in
the second one. Once he has verified that the rework follows Hannahs
recommendation he presses the *DONE* button to let Hannah know that she can
review the changes.
When Hannah next looks at Max's change, she sees that he incorporated her
feedback. The change looks good to her, so she changes her vote to a `+2`.
== Verifying the Change
Hannah's `+2` vote means that Max's change satisfies the *Needs Review*
check. It has to pass one more check before it can be accepted: the *Needs
Verified* check.
The Verified check means that the change was confirmed to work. This type of
check typically involves tasks such as checking that the code compiles, unit
tests pass, and other actions. You can configure a Verified check to consist
of as many or as few tasks as needed.
NOTE: Remember that this walkthrough uses Gerrit's default workflow. Projects
can add custom checks or even remove the Verified check entirely.
Verification is typically an automated process using the
link:[Gerrit Trigger Jenkins Plugin]
or a similar mechanism. However, there are still times when a change requires
manual verification, or a reviewer needs to check how or if a change works.
To accommodate these and other similar circumstances, Gerrit exposes each change
as a git branch. The Gerrit UI includes a
link:user-review-us.html#download[*download*] link in the Gerrit Code Review
Screen to make it easy for reviewers to fetch a branch for a specific change.
To manually verify a change, a reviewer must have the
link:config-labels.html#label_Verified[Verified] permission. Then, the reviewer
can fetch and checkout that branch from Gerrit. Hannah has this permission, so
she is authorized to manually verify Max's change.
NOTE: The Verifier can be the same person as the code reviewer or a
different person entirely.
.Verifying the Change
image::images/intro-quick-verifying.png[Verifying the Change]
Unlike the code review check, the verify check is pass/fail. Hannah can provide
a score of either `+1` or `-1`. A change must have at least one `+1` and no
Hannah selects a `+1` for her verified check. Max's change is now ready to be
== Submitting the Change
Max is now ready to submit his change. He opens up the change in the Code Review
screen and clicks the *SUBMIT* button.
At this point, Max's change is merged into the repository's master branch and
becomes an accepted part of the project.
== Next Steps
This walkthrough provided a quick overview of how a change moves
through the default Gerrit workflow. At this point, you can:
* Read the link:intro-user.html[Users guide] to get a better sense of how to
make changes using Gerrit
* Review the link:intro-project-owner.html[Project Owners guide] to learn more
about configuring projects in Gerrit, including setting user permissions and
configuring verification checks
Part of link:index.html[Gerrit Code Review]